The concept of orthogonal design is extended to higher dimensions. A properg-dimensional design[d_{ijk cdots upsilon}]is defined as one in which all parallel(g-1)-dimensional layers, in any orientation parallel to a hyper plane, are uncorrelated. This is equivalent to the requirement thatd_{ijk cdots upsilon} in {0, pm x_{1}, cdots , pm x_{t} }, wherex_{1}, cdots , x_{t}are commuting variables, and thatsum_{p} sum_{q} sum_{r} cdots sum_{y} d_{pqr cdots ya} d_{pqr cdots yb} = left( sum_{t} s_{i}x_{i}^{2} right)^{g-1} delta ab,where(s{1}, cdots , s{t})are integers giving the occurrences ofpm x_{1}, cdots , pm x_{t}in each row and column (this is called the type(s_{1}, cdot ,s_{t})^{g-1})and(pqr cdots yz)represents all permutations of(ijk cdots upsilon). This extends an idea of Paul J. Shlichta, whose higher dimensional Hadamard matrices are special cases withx_{1}, cdots , x_{t} in {1,- 1}, (s_{1}, cdots, s_{t})=(g), and(sum_{t}s_{i}x_{i}^{2})=g. Another special case is higher dimensional weighing matrices of type(k)^{g}, which havex_{1}, cdots , x_{t} in {0,1,- 1}, (s_{1}, cdots, s_{t})=(k), and(sum_{t}s_{i}x_{i}^{2})=k. Shlichta found properg-dimensional Hadamard matrices of size(2^{t})^{g}. Proper orthogonal designs of type

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Information Theory, IEEE Transactions on  (Volume:27 ,  Issue: 6 )