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The system of sine and cosine functions has been distinguished historically in communications. Whenever the term frequency is used, reference is made implicitly to these functions; hence the generally used theory of communication is based on the system of sine and cosine functions. In recent years other complete systems of orthogonal functions have been used for theoretical investigations as well as for equipment design. Analogs to Fourier series, Fourier transform, frequency, power spectra, and amplitude, phase, and frequency modulation exist for many systems of orthogonal functions. This implies that theories of communication can be worked out on the basis of these systems. Most of these theories are of academic interest only. However, for the complete system of the orthogonal Walsh functions, the implementation of circuits by modem semiconductor techniques appears to be competitive in a number of applications with the implementation of circuits for the system of sine and cosine functions.