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The overall aim of this study is to compare the effectiveness of cervical lateral mass plate (CLMP) fixation to that of cervical lateral mass rod (CLMR) fixation and transpedicular fixation in providing stability to the cervical spine. Twenty-one cervical spines will be tested intact and with instrumentation in varying degrees of instability including posterior instability, anterior/posterior instability, corpectomy, and reconstructed corpectomy. The biomechanical testing will be conducted on an MTS 858 Mini Bionix testing system with specially designed fixation methods for producing axial torsion, flexion/extension, and lateral bending. Data for each of the constructs in all conditions will consist of stiffness and energy absorption that can be compared across constructs and conditions.