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Presents an overview of current design techniques for operational amplifiers implemented in CMOS and NMOS technology at a tutorial level. Primary emphasis is placed on CMOS amplifiers because of their more widespread use. Factors affecting voltage gain, input noise, offsets, common mode and power supply rejection, power dissipation, and transient response are considered for the traditional bipolar-derived two-stage architecture. Alternative circuit approaches for optimization of particular performance aspects are summarized, and examples are given.