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An architecture for providing range extension by deploying mobile gateways in ad hoc networks

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4 Author(s)
Ahmed, M. ; Inf. Sci. Lab., Hughes Res. Labs., Malibu, CA, USA ; Krishnamurthy, S. ; Katz, R. ; Dao, S.

The dynamic nature of a mobile ad hoc network (MANET) may result in a cluster of nodes being isolated from the rest of the network, especially when deployed in a terrain with blockages. To provide connectivity between the partitions of an ad hoc network that might occur due to mobility, a 'range extension' network can be employed. Such a network might consist of airborne communication platforms, or geostationary/low-Earth-orbit satellites maintaining communication links with specific 'gateway' nodes that are dispersed among the mobile ground nodes. Thus, to communicate with a node that is geographically distant or belongs to a different network partition, an ad hoc node can relay its data packets through an appropriate mobile gateway and via the range extension network. In such an architecture, MANET is divided into different domains with a mobile gateway deployed for each domain. The objective, then, is to determine the position and trajectory of the gateways to optimize network performance metrics such as throughput and latency. In this paper, computation of the optimal position for a gateway is shown to be equivalent to a linear optimization problem by means of some simplifying but realistic assumptions. An algorithm is proposed for the control of the gateway trajectory. The practical constraints imposed by the velocity and maneuverability of the gateways are taken into account. Simulation results show a 10-15% improvement in the throughput and latency, per gateway domain, if a gateway has a dynamic trajectory whose locus follows the computed optimal position, as compared to a gateway that is statically placed at a fixed position, or to a gateway that has a random trajectory.

Published in:

Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications, 2002. The 13th IEEE International Symposium on  (Volume:4 )

Date of Conference:

15-18 Sept. 2002