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We deal with an absolute mobile robot self-localization algorithm in an artificial indoor environment. Until now, localization methods based on conical omnidirectional vision sensors uniquely used radial segments from vertical environment landmarks projection. The main motivation of this work is to show that primitives other than radial straight lines are usable with a conical vision sensor. In other words, the goal is to demonstrate that the SYCLOP sensor can be used as a vision sensor rather than a goniometric one. After a brief outline of SYCLOP geometry and the calibration process, we show how the calibration allows us to know the omnidirectional image formation process to compute a synthetic image base. Then, we present the localization method. Finally, some experimental results obtained with real noisy omnidirectional images acquired in an artificial indoor environment are shown.