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Molecular recognition for electronic noses using surface acoustic wave immunoassay sensors

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3 Author(s)
Stubbs, D.D. ; Sch. of Chem. & Biochem., Georgia Inst. of Technol., Atlanta, GA, USA ; Sang-Hun Lee ; Hunt, W.D.

In this paper, we present the results of a series of experiments on vapor phase surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensors using a layer of antibodies as the chemically sensitive film. For these experiments, the sensor component was a ST-quartz resonator with a center frequency of approximately 250 MHz. Anti-FITC antibodies were attached to the electrodes on the device surface via a protein-A crosslinker. SAW resonator devices with various coatings were mounted in TO-8 packages, inserted into a sensor head module and subjected to various fluorescent analyte gases. Numerous controls were performed including the use of coated and uncoated devices along with devices coated with antibodies which were not specific for the target analyte. The SAW immunosensor response was monitored and a baseline frequency shift was observed when the analyte being presented was the antigen for the immobilized antibody. To provide an independent measure of antibody/antigen binding, the devices were removed from the sensor head, washed with a buffer solution to remove any unbound analyte, and then inspected using a confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM). Since all the analytes being used in these experiments were fluorescent, this afforded us the opportunity to visualize the attachment of the analyte to the antibody film. Given the high resolution of the CLSM, we were able to identify the location of the attachment of the fluorescent analytes relative to the 1.5 μm wide electrodes of the SAW device. We believe that these experiments demonstrate that we have achieved real time molecular recognition of these small molecules in the vapor phase.

Published in:

Sensors Journal, IEEE  (Volume:2 ,  Issue: 4 )

Date of Publication:

Aug 2002

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