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Since their invention in 1984, flash memories have evolved from single device components to megabit nonvolatile memory (NVM) arrays. Flash memories were born from the need to find easily scalable replacements for EPROMs (erasable programmable read only memory) and EEPROMs (electrically erasable programmable read only memory). Unlike EPROMs and EEPROMs, flash memory cells provide single-cell electrical program and fast simultaneous block electrical erase. Thus, a small cell size is combined with a fast in-system erase capability.