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In this work, thermal resistors based on a simple rectangular structure are fabricated on three kinds of substrates thin-film (0.1 μm) silicon-on-insulator (SOI), thick-film (10 μm) SOI and bulk Si, and their characteristics are investigated. Measurements verify that SOI can indeed have additional freedom for increasing the maximum operating temperature (Tmax). More importantly, the thin-film SOI thermal resistor not only achieves a Tmax as high as 420°C, but also a low operating current of 1 μA, which is about 1,000 times smaller than that of the thick-film SOI counterpart for the same Tmax. In conclusion, silicon resistor on SOI is a promising low-cost thermal sensor for a broad scope of low-power high-temperature applications.