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We introduce an ad hoe wireless mobile network that employs a hierarchical networking architecture. The network uses high capacity and low capacity nodes. We present a topological synthesis algorithm that selects a subset of high capacity nodes to form. a backbone network. The latter consists of interconnected backbone nodes that intercommunicate across high power links, and also makes use of (airborne, ground and underwater) Unmanned Vehicles (UVs). We introduce the TBONE protocol to implement the key networking schemes for such a Mobile Backbone Network (MBN). It includes combined network layer operation, i.e. mobile backbone net-work topological synthesis, and MAC layer resource allocation schemes. The TBONE protocol serves to allocate resources across the network to ensure that user applications are granted acceptable quality-of-service (QoS) performance, while striving to ensure a highly survivable and robust backbone-oriented networking architecture. We present elements of the protocol and key involved algorithms, and illustrate the distinctive advantages offered by the TBONE based mobile backbone network.