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Gathering sensed information in an energy efficient manner is critical to operating the sensor network for a long period of time. The LEACH protocol presented by Heinzelman et al. (2000) is an elegant solution where clusters are formed to fuse data before transmitting to the base station. In this paper, we present an improved scheme, called PEGASIS (power-efficient gathering in sensor information systems), which is a near-optimal chain-based protocol that minimizes energy. In PEGASIS, each node communicates only with a close neighbor and takes turns transmitting to the base station, thus reducing the amount of energy spent per round. Simulation results show that PEGASIS performs better than LEACH. For many applications, in addition to minimizing energy, it is also important to consider the delay incurred in gathering sensed data. We capture this with the energy × delay metric and present schemes that attempt to balance the energy and delay cost for data gathering from sensor networks. We present two new schemes to minimize energy × delay using CDMA and non-CDMA sensor nodes. We compared the performance of direct, LEACH, and our schemes with respect to energy × delay using extensive simulations for different network sizes. Results show that our schemes perform 80 or more times better than the direct scheme and also outperform the LEACH protocol.