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Ultralow-threshold sapphire substrate-bonded top-emitting 850-nm VCSEL array

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7 Author(s)
Liu, J.J. ; Sensors & Electron Devices Directorate, US Army Res. Lab., Adelphi, MD, USA ; Riely, B. ; Shen, P.H. ; Das, N.
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Oxide-confined top-emitting vertical-cavity surface-emitting-laser (VCSEL) 8 × 8 arrays were designed and fabricated with ultralow thresholds. The arrays were flip-chip bonded onto sapphire substrates and mounted in pin-grid-array packages as optical transmitter arrays. By using the offset-contact bonding process, we were able to obtain very high yield for hybridized devices without damaging the VCSEL mesas. Room-temperature lasing thresholds below 70 μA were found from some of these packaged VCSELs with measured oxide apertures 2.6 μm in diameter. The emission spectrum at an injection current of 70 μA showed a full-width at half-maximum linewidth of less than 2.5 A. Polarization properties were also confirmed from the output of the device. The superior performance was attributed to the optimized size and placement of the confinement aperture and the precise alignment of the gain profile of the active region to the mode of the resonant cavity.

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Photonics Technology Letters, IEEE  (Volume:14 ,  Issue: 9 )