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The objective of the paper is the application of an adaptive constructive one-hidden-layer feedforward neural networks (OHL-FNNs) to image compression. Comparisons with fixed structure neural networks are performed to demonstrate and illustrate the training and the generalization capabilities of the proposed adaptive constructive networks. The influence of quantization effects as well as comparison with the baseline JPEG scheme are also investigated. It has been demonstrated through several experiments that very promising results are obtained as compared to presently available techniques in the literature.