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Using InP-InGaAs heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT) technology, we have successfully designed and fabricated a low-power 1:16 demultiplexer (DEMUX) integrated circuit (IC) and one-chip clock and data recovery (CDR) with a 1:4 DEMUX IC for 10-Gb/s optical communications systems. The InP-InGaAs HBTs were fabricated by a nonself-aligned process for high uniformity of device characteristics and producibility. The 1:16 DEMUX IC and the one-chip CDR with the 1:4 DEMUX IC consist of approximately 1200 and 460 transistors, respectively. We have confirmed error-free operation at 10 Gb/s for all data outputs of both ICs. The 1:16 DEMUX IC and the one-chip CDR with the 1:4 DEMUX IC consume only 1 W and 950 mW, respectively. These results demonstrate the feasibility of InP-InGaAs HBTs for low power high-integration optical communication ICs.