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Theoretical and experimental investigations of chaos synchronization and its application to chaotic data transmissions in semiconductor lasers with optical feedback are presented. Two schemes of chaos synchronization-complete and generalized synchronization-are discussed in the delay differential systems. The conditions for chaos synchronization in the systems and the robustness for the parameter mismatches are studied. The possibility of secure communications based on the chaos masking technique in semiconductor lasers with optical feedback is also discussed, and message transmission of a 1.5-GHz sinusoidal signal is demonstrated. The method of bandwidth enhancement of chaotic carriers is proposed for broad-band chaos communications.