By Topic

Intraspinal micro stimulation generates locomotor-like and feedback-controlled movements

Sign In

Cookies must be enabled to login.After enabling cookies , please use refresh or reload or ctrl+f5 on the browser for the login options.

Formats Non-Member Member
$31 $13
Learn how you can qualify for the best price for this item!
Become an IEEE Member or Subscribe to
IEEE Xplore for exclusive pricing!
close button

puzzle piece

IEEE membership options for an individual and IEEE Xplore subscriptions for an organization offer the most affordable access to essential journal articles, conference papers, standards, eBooks, and eLearning courses.

Learn more about:

IEEE membership

IEEE Xplore subscriptions

4 Author(s)
Mushahwar, V.K. ; Centre for Neurosci., Alberta Univ., Edmonton, Alta., Canada ; Gillard, D.M. ; Gauthier, M.J.A. ; Prochazka, A.

Intraspinal microstimulation (ISMS) may provide a means for improving motor function in people suffering from spinal cord injuries, head trauma, or stroke. The goal of this study was to determine whether microstimulation of the mammalian spinal cord could generate locomotor-like stepping and feedback-controlled movements of the hindlimbs. Under pentobarbital anesthesia, 24 insulated microwires were implanted in the lumbosacral cord of three adult cats. The cats were placed in a sling leaving all limbs pendent. Bilateral alternating stepping of the hindlimbs was achieved by stimulating through as few as two electrodes in each side of the spinal cord. Typical stride lengths were 23.5 cm, and ample foot clearance was achieved during swing. Mean ground reaction force during stance was 36.4 N, sufficient for load-bearing. Feedback-controlled movements of the cat's foot were achieved by reciprocally modulating the amplitude of stimuli delivered through two intraspinal electrodes generating ankle flexion and extension such that the distance between a sensor on the cat's foot and a free sensor moved back and forth by the investigators was minimized.. The foot tracked the displacements of the target sensor through its normal range of motion. Stimulation through electrodes with tips in or near lamina IX elicited movements most suitable for locomotion. In chronically implanted awake cats, stimulation through dorsally located electrodes generated paw shakes and flexion-withdrawals consistent with sensory perception but no weight-bearing extensor movements. These locations would not be suitable for ISMS in incomplete spinal cord injuries. Despite the complexity of the spinal neuronal networks, our results demonstrate that by stimulating through a few intraspinal microwires, near-normal bipedal locomotor-like stepping and feedback-controlled movements could be achieved.

Published in:

Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering, IEEE Transactions on  (Volume:10 ,  Issue: 1 )