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This paper summarizes the results of over 25 research groups or individual researchers that have presented video coding implementations on general-purpose processors with the new single instruction multiple data media instruction set architecture extensions. The extensions are introduced and the fundamentals for extensions, as well as some inherent problems, are explained. The reported attempts to utilize the extensions are divided into kernel- and application-level, as well as platform dependent and independent optimizations. Optimized applications include, in addition to some proprietary methods, all of the major video coding standards such as H.261, H.263, MPEG-4, MPEG-1, and MPEG-2. These optimized implementations include a complete video codec, several decoders, and several encoders. Additionally, a performance comparison is given for four representative encoder implementations based on the reported results. Also included is an overview of future trends for new instructions and architectural speed-up techniques.