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A 2 V 1.8 GHz fully integrated CMOS dual-loop frequency synthesizer is designed in a standard 0.5 μm digital CMOS process for wireless communication. The voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) required for the low-frequency loop is designed using a ring-type VCO and achieves a tuning range of 89% from 356 to 931 MHz and a phase noise of -109.2 dBc/Hz at 600 kHz offset from 856 MHz. With an active chip area of 2000×1000 μm2 and at a 2 V supply voltage, the whole synthesizer achieves a tuning range from 1.8492 to 1.8698 GHz in 200 kHz steps with a measured phase noise of -112 dBc/Hz at 600 kHz offset from 1.86 GHz. The measured settling time is 128 μs and the total power consumption is 95 mW.
Date of Publication: Aug 2002