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The paper develops algorithms for minimizing the energy required to transmit packets in a wireless environment. It is motivated by the following observation: In many channel coding schemes it is possible to significantly lower the transmission energy by transmitting packets over a long period of time. Based on this observation, we show that for a variety of scenarios the offline energy-efficient transmission scheduling problem reduces to a convex optimization problem. Unlike for the special case of a single transmitter-receiver pair studied by (see Prabhakar, Uysal-Biyikoglu and El Gamal. Proc. IEEE Infocom 2001), the problem does not, in general, admit a closed-form solution when there are multiple users. By exploiting the special structure of the problem, however, we are able to devise energy-efficient transmission schedules. For the downlink channel, with a single transmitter and multiple receivers, we devise an iterative algorithm, called MoveRight, that yields the optimal offline schedule. The MoveRight algorithm also optimally solves the downlink problem with additional constraints imposed by packet deadlines and finite transmit buffers. For the uplink (or multiaccess) problem MoveRight optimally determines the offline time-sharing schedule. A very efficient online algorithm, called MoveRightExpress, that uses a surprisingly small look-ahead buffer is proposed and is shown to perform competitively with the optimal offline schedule in terms of energy efficiency and delay.