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Over GHz low-power RF clock distribution for a multiprocessor digital system

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5 Author(s)
Woonghwan Ryu ; Intel Corp., Folsom, CA, USA ; Wai, A.L.C. ; Fan Wei ; Wai Lai Lai
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Conventional interconnections for digital clock distribution pose a severe power consumption problem for GHz clock distribution due to transmission line losses. Therefore, we have proposed an RF clock distribution (RCD) scheme for high-speed digital applications, in particular a multiprocessor system using global clocking. This paper first reports system power and signal integrity analysis results including skew, jitter, impedance mismatch, and noise for RF clock distribution,especially in the GHz range. Based on this analysis, a novel signal integrity design methodology for RF clock distribution systems is proposed. The clock skew created by process parameter variations are modeled and predicted. The system comprises a RF clock transmitter as a clock generator, an H-tree with junction couplers as a clock distributing network and a RF receiver as a digital clock-recovery module. Flip-chip interconnections for the chip-to-substrate assembly and 0.35 μm TSMC CMOS technology for the RF clock receiver are assumed. EMI analysis for 2 GHz 16-node-board-level RF clock distribution networks is conducted using 3D full-wave EM simulation. Finally, the RCD as a low power and high performance clocking method is demonstrated using HP's Advanced Design System (ADS) simulation, considering microwave frequency interconnection models and process parameter variations. In addition, test vehicles for both 2 GHz 16-node and 5 GHz 64-node board-level RF clock distribution networks were implemented and measured using thin, low-loss, and low permittivity RogersLt; RO3003 high-frequency organic substrate

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Advanced Packaging, IEEE Transactions on  (Volume:25 ,  Issue: 1 )