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The detection of gear faults by spectral analysis based on FFT of vibration signals emitted by the gear system have limitations in terms of spectral resolution. In order to overcome the limitations of these methods, we propose in this article a diagnostic technique for gear faults based on spectral parameters analysis utilising the AR and ARMA of vibration signals. A comparison between the AR and the ARMA techniques is carried out on the vibration signal emitted by the gear system constituted of two gear wheels functioning under constant conditions. We show that the surveillance and the diagnostics of the studied system can be effected by the observation of the harmonic variations of the gear frequency in the evolution of the power spectra during 13 days of observations of the machine.