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In this paper, we present recent advances in the understanding of the properties of semiconducting single wall carbon nanotube and in the exploration of their use as field-effect transistors (FETs). Both electrons and holes can be injected in a nanotube transistor by either controlling the metal-nanotube Schottky barriers present at the contacts or simply by doping the bulk of the nanotube. These methods give complementary nanotube FETs that can be integrated together to make inter- and intra-nanotube logic circuits. The device performance and their general characteristics suggest that they can compete with silicon MOSFETs. While this is true when considering simple prototype devices, several issues remain to be explored before a nanotube-based technology is possible. They are also discussed.