Skip to Main Content
This paper presents a class of algorithms suitable for model reduction of distributed systems. Distributed systems are not suitable for treatment by standard model-reduction algorithms such as PRIMA, PVL, and the Arnoldi schemes because they generate matrices that are dependent on frequency (or other parameters) and cannot be put in a lumped or state-space form. Our algorithms build on well-known projection-based reduction techniques, and so require only matrix-vector product operations and are thus suitable for operation in conjunction with electromagnetic analysis codes that use iterative solution methods and fast-multipole acceleration techniques. Under the condition that the starting systems satisfy system-theoretic properties required of physical systems, the reduced systems can be guaranteed to be passive. For distributed systems, we argue that causality of the underlying representation is as important a consideration as passivity has become.