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Role of processing geometry in SAR raw data focusing

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4 Author(s)
G. Fornaro ; Ist. per il Rilevamento Elettromagnetico dell''Ambiente, CNR, Naples, Italy ; E. Sansosti ; R. Lanari ; M. Tesauro

Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) systems require that a focusing operation be performed on the received backscattered echoes (raw data) to generate high-resolution microwave images. Either due to platform attitude instabilities, or to Earth rotation effects, the SAR raw data may be acquired in "squinted" geometries, i.e., with the radar beam directed with an offset angle (squint angle) from the broadside direction. This research investigates the impact of the focusing operation carried out on squinted raw data acquisitions performed by SAR sensors operating in the stripmap mode. To this end the 2D frequency SAR processing approach is generalized with respect to conical, i.e., nonorthogonal, reference systems. This allows analysis of the geometric, spectral, and phase aberrations introduced in the images by the chosen processing geometry with respect to the acquisition, and identification of the focusing procedure that minimizes these aberrations. The whole theory is validated by experimental results carried out on simulated data. Moreover, the extension of this analysis to the interferometric case where these aberrations may have a significant role is also investigated

Published in:

IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems  (Volume:38 ,  Issue: 2 )