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Randomness, arrays, differences and duality

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1 Author(s)
Massey, J.L. ; Trondhjemsgade 3, 2TH, Copenhagen, Denmark

Random variables that take on values in the finite field of q elements are considered. It is shown that joint distributions of such random variables are equivalently described by the individual distributions of their linear combinations. Random vectors X that are equally likely to take on any row of an arbitrary q-ary rectangular array as their value are treated extensively, together with the random vector ΔX defined as the difference between two independent versions of such a random vector. It is shown that linear combinations of exactly τ of the components of X are always biased toward 0. A quantitative measure βτ, of this bias is introduced and shown to be given by a sum of Krawtchouk polynomials. The vanishing of βτ is shown to be equivalent to the maximal randomness of linear combinations of exactly τ of the components of X as well as of ΔX. When the rows of the original array are the codewords of a q-ary linear code, then the bias βτ coincides with the number of codewords of Hamming weight τ in the dual code. The results of this article generalize certain well-known results such as the MacWilliams' (1977) identities and Delsarte's (1973) theorem on the significance of the "dual distance" of nonlinear codes

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Information Theory, IEEE Transactions on  (Volume:48 ,  Issue: 6 )