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Limited diffraction beams such as X waves can propagate to an infinite distance without spreading if they are produced with an infinite aperture and energy. In practice, when the aperture and energy are finite, these beams have a large depth of field with only limited diffraction. Because of this property, limited diffraction beams could have applications in medical imaging, tissue characterization, blood flow velocity vector imaging, nondestructive evaluation of materials, communications, and other areas such as optics and electromagnetics. In this paper, a new transform, called X wave transform, is developed. In the transform, any well behaved solutions to the isotropic-homogeneous wave equation or limited diffraction beams can he expanded using X waves as basis functions. The coefficients of the expansions can be calculated with the properties that X waves are orthogonal. Examples are given to demonstrate the efficacy of the X wave transform. The X wave transform reveals an intrinsic relationship between any well behaved solutions to the wave equation and X waves, including limited diffraction beams. This provides a theoretical foundation to develop new limited diffraction beams or solutions to the wave equation that may have practical usefulness.