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Augmenting the operator function model with cognitive operations: assessing the cognitive demands of technological innovation in ship navigation

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2 Author(s)
J. D. Lee ; Dept. of Ind. Eng., Iowa Univ., Iowa City, IA, USA ; T. F. Sanquist

The increasing technological sophistication of ship navigation systems may significantly alter the skills, knowledge, and strategies involved in navigating large ships. Many examples in other domains illustrate the dangers of technology-driven innovations. These examples show that without a systematic method to detect design flaws and training requirements, technology-driven designs may degrade rather than enhance maritime safety. The operator function model (OFM) provides the basis for examining technological innovations; however, the OFM does not describe specific cognitive demands. Augmenting the OFM with a description of cognitive operations provides a structured cognitive task analysis tool-OFM-COG-that can identify the design and training requirements needed to safeguard system performance. This approach identifies how to tailor designs, develop training, and adjust qualifications to minimize the human errors that might otherwise accompany technological innovation. The paper shows how OFM-COG can catalog differences between traditional navigation systems and those augmented with electronic charts and collision avoidance systems. Specifically, it examines the cognitive demands of collision avoidance and track keeping, with and without advanced technological aids. This analysis demonstrates that some advanced radars may in fact increase the likelihood of certain collisions, and that the current certification process does not reflect the cognitive demands of the new technology. The analysis also indicates that electronic chart display and information systems (ECDIS) can reduce the redundancy that has served to make traditional systems quite reliable. Drawing upon these examples, the paper describes OFM-COG and demonstrates how this model-based analysis technique can document the cognitive implications of technological innovations

Published in:

IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics - Part A: Systems and Humans  (Volume:30 ,  Issue: 3 )