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A novel bridge-controlled crystal oscillator circuit with exceptional temperature stability is described. The contribution to the oscillator temperature coefficient of frequency (tempco) from the circuit components (exclusive of the crystal) is reduced to about 10/sup -11///spl deg/C, which is several orders of magnitude better than conventional oscillator circuits. This avoids a situation in which the overall tempco is limited by circuit component drift rather than crystal stability, which can easily occur with conventional circuits when the crystal is ovenized at a turnover point. Previous attempts to use a bridge in an oscillator were made by Meacham (1938), who used an imperfectly balanced bridge, and Sulzer (1955), who used a balanced pseudo-bridge. The reasons why these are unsatisfactory are discussed. Although the bridge greatly reduces reactive frequency pulling, it does not address directly the additional issue of pulling caused by variations in crystal drive current amplitude. However, it is an enabling technology for a novel ALC circuit with greatly improved stability. The new bridge-controlled oscillator is also much less sensitive to other environmental effects such as humidity (2/spl times/10/sup -11/, 5%/25% R.H. @70/spl deg/C), power supply voltage, load impedance, and stray capacitance.
Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control, IEEE Transactions on (Volume:47 , Issue: 2 )
Date of Publication: March 2000