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CMOS transconductance multipliers: a tutorial

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2 Author(s)
Gunhee Han ; Dept. of Electron. Eng., Yonsei Univ., Seoul, South Korea ; Sanchez-Sinencio, E.

Real time analog multiplication of two signals is one of the most important operations in analog signal processing. The multiplier is used not only as a computational building block but also as a programming element in systems such as filters, neural networks, and as mixers and modulators in a communication system. Although high performance bipolar junction transistor multipliers have been available for some time, the CMOS multiplier implementation is still a challenging subject especially for low-voltage and low-power circuit design. Despite the large number of papers proposing new CMOS multiplier structures, they can be roughly grouped into a few categories. This tutorial provides a complete survey of CMOS multipliers, presents a unified generation of multiplier architectures, and proposes the most recommended MOS multiplier structure. This tutorial could serve as a starting reference point (and metric) for comparison of new CMOS multiplier circuit configurations. An illustrative CMOS chip prototype verifying theoretical results is presented

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Circuits and Systems II: Analog and Digital Signal Processing, IEEE Transactions on  (Volume:45 ,  Issue: 12 )