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Automatic image annotation assigns semantic labels to images thus presents great potential to achieve semantic-aware image retrieval. However, existing annotation algorithms are not scalable to this emerging need, both in terms of computational efficiency and the number of tags they can deal with. Facilitated by recent development of the large-scale image category recognition data such as ImageNet, we extrapolate from it a model for scalable image annotation and semantic-aware image retrieval, namely ObjectBook. The element in the ObjectBook, which is called an ObjectWord, is defined as a collection of discriminative image patches annotated with the corresponding objects. We take ObjectBook as a high-level semantic preserving visual vocabulary, and hence are able to easily develop efficient image annotation and inverted file indexing strategies for large-scale image collections. The proposed retrieval strategy is compared with state-of-the-art algorithms. Experimental results manifest that the ObjectBook is both discriminative and scalable for large-scale semantic-aware image retrieval.