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An extended reach 10-Gb/s wavelength division multiplexing passive optical network (WDM-PON) system based on a low-bandwidth reflective semiconductor optical amplifier (RSOA) is demonstrated using a novel partial response equalization (PRE) scheme. The proposed technique has good performance-complexity tradeoff compared to traditional equalization methods. The intrinsic feature of the signal directly modulated by RSOA and the impact of dispersion on the modulated signal are investigated. The result shows that the shape of the RF spectrum of the received signal can be predicted. Moreover, one target response can be applied for a wide range of transmission distances by properly setting the equalizer parameters. It is confirmed experimentally and via simulation that the proposed system can achieve good performance over 0 to 75 km fiber link using PRE with the same setup.