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We have demonstrated sub-10-nm extremely thin body (ETB) InGaAs-on-insulator (InGaAs-OI) nMOSFETs on Si wafers with Al2O3 ultrathin buried oxide (UTBOX) layers fabricated by direct wafer bonding process. We have fabricated the ETB InGaAs-OI nMOSFETs with channel thicknesses of 9 and 3.5 nm. The 9-nm-thick ETB InGaAs-OI n MOSFETs with a doping concentration (ND) of 1019 cm-3 exhibit a peak electron mobility of 912 cm2/V·s and a mobility enhancement factor of 1.7 times against the Si nMOSFET at a surface carrier density (Ns) of 3 ×1012 cm-2. In addition, it has been found that, owing to Al2O3 UTBOX layers, the double-gate operation improves the cutoff properties. As a result, the highest on-current to the lowest off-current (Ion/Ioff) ratio of approximately 107 has been obtained in the 3.5-nm-thick ETB InGaAs-OI nMOSFETs. These results indicate that the high-mobility III-V nMOSFETs can be realized even in sub-10-nm-thick channels.