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Automatic identification based on radio frequency identification (RFID) is progressively being introduced into industrial environments, enabling new applications and processes. In the context of communications, RFID rely mostly on Frame Slotted Aloha (FSA) anticollision protocols. Their goal is to reduce the time required to detect all the tags within range (identification time). Using FSA, the maximum identification rate is achieved when the number of contending tags equals the number of contention slots available in the frame. Therefore, the reader must estimate the number of contenders and allocate that number of slots for the next frame. This paper introduces the new MFML-DFSA anticollision protocol. It estimates the number of contenders by means of a maximum-likelihood estimator, which uses the statistical information from several frames (multiframe estimation) to improve the accuracy of the estimate. Based on this expected number of tags, the algorithm determines the best frame length for the next reading frame, taking into account the constraints of the EPCglobal Class-1 Gen-2 standard. The MFML-DFSA algorithm is compared with previous proposals and found to outperform these in terms of (lower) average identification time and computational cost, which makes it suitable for implementation in commercial RFID readers.