Skip to Main Content
3D IC integration can be accomplished by using the approaches such as chip-on-chip, chip-on-wafer and wafer-on-wafer integration. The scheme of chip-on-chip shows the advantages of high flexibility and yield during assembly process. However, low fabrication throughput has been a major issue. When compared to chip-on-chip integrations, wafer-on-wafer may provide the higher manufacturing throughput but its overall yield will be limited by accumulative yield. Also, good chips are forced to bond on bad chip. Therefore, the development of chip-on-wafer integration may be a better scheme for 3D chip stacking. In this study, a high-yield and fluxless chip-on-wafer bonding process with 30μm pitch lead-free solder micro bump interconnection were demonstrated and the reliability of micro joint was also evaluated. Test chip adopted in this study had more than 3000 micro bumps with a diameter of 18μm and a pitch of 30μm. Sn2.5Ag solder material was electroplated on Cu/Ni under bump metallurgy (UBM) of both the test chip and 200 mm wafer. To achieve the purpose of fluxless chip-on-wafer bonding, the plasma pre-treatment was applied to both the test chips and bonded wafer. The thermo-compression bonding method with the gap control capability was also carried out. In this work, the fluxless thermo-compression bonding having more than 90% CoW yield had been accomplished. The factor of Sn thickness was found to evidently influence the CoW yield. With the optimized plasma treatment parameters and bonding conditions, a well-aligned and robust joining of micro bump without using flux could be obtained. The results of reliability test revealed that the introduction of underfill could apparently enhance the reliability performance of micro joint under mechanical evaluation. Also, the solder micro bump joint showed excellent electromigration resistance when compared to standard flip chip bump under current stress of 5×10-4 A/cm2 at an - - ambient temperature of 150°C.