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Multiwavelength all-optical regeneration has the potential to substantially increase both the capacity and scalability of future optical networks. In this paper, we review recent promising developments in this area. First, we recall the basic principles of multichannel regeneration of high bit rate signals in optical communication systems before discussing the current technological approaches. We then describe in detail two fiber-based multichannel 2R regeneration techniques for return-to-zero-on-off keying based on 1) dispersion managed systems and 2) direction and polarization multiplexing. We present results illustrating the levels of performance so far achieved and discuss various practical issues and prospects for further performance enhancement.