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This paper introduces a new concept for a smart wireless sensor web technology for optimal measurements of surface-to-depth profiles of soil moisture using in-situ sensors. The objective of the technology, supported by the NASA Earth Science Technology Office Advanced Information Systems Technology program, is to enable a guided and adaptive sampling strategy for the in-situ sensor network to meet the measurement validation objectives of spaceborne soil moisture sensors. A potential application for this technology is the validation of products from the Soil Moisture Active/Passive (SMAP) mission. Spatially, the total variability in soil-moisture fields comes from variability in processes on various scales. Temporally, variability is caused by external forcings, landscape heterogeneity, and antecedent conditions. Installing a dense in-situ network to sample the field continuously in time for all ranges of variability is impractical. However, a sparser but smarter network with an optimized measurement schedule can provide the validation estimates by operating in a guided fashion with guidance from its own sparse measurements. The feedback and control take place in the context of a dynamic physics-based hydrologic and sensor modeling system. The overall design of the smart sensor web-including the control architecture, physics-based hydrologic and sensor models, and actuation and communication hardware-is presented in this paper. We also present results illustrating sensor scheduling and estimation strategies as well as initial numerical and field demonstrations of the sensor web concept. It is shown that the coordinated operation of sensors through the control policy results in substantial savings in resource usage.
Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing, IEEE Journal of (Volume:3 , Issue: 4 )
Date of Publication: Dec. 2010