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A novel analytical model of inductively coupled wireless power transfer is presented. For the first time, the effects of coil misalignment and geometry are addressed in a single mathematical expression. In the applications envisaged, such as radio frequency identification (RFID) and biomedical implants, the receiving coil is normally significantly smaller than the transmitting coil. Formulas are derived for the magnetic field at the receiving coil when it is laterally and angularly misaligned from the transmitting coil. Incorporating this magnetic field solution with an equivalent circuit for the inductive link allows us to introduce a power transfer formula that combines coil characteristics and misalignment factors. The coil geometries considered are spiral and short solenoid structures which are currently popular in the RFID and biomedical domains. The novel analytical power transfer efficiency expressions introduced in this study allow the optimization of coil geometry for maximum power transfer and misalignment tolerance. The experimental results show close correlation with the theoretical predictions. This analytic technique can be widely applied to inductive wireless power transfer links without the limitations imposed by numerical methods.
Date of Publication: Feb. 2011