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This paper proposes an impedance-based analytical method for modeling and analysis of harmonic interactions between the grid and aggregated distributed generation (DG) inverters. The root cause of harmonic interaction/resonance problems is the impedance-network quasi-resonance between the effective output impedance of the inverter and the equivalent grid impedance at the connection point. Starting with the output impedance modeling of an inverter, a Norton model of the inverter is derived. Comparing with the switching model and the average model of the inverter, simulation results show the effectiveness of the model. This paper proposes that impedance limits should be specified and used as an extra design constraint for DG inverters in order to minimize the harmonic distortion impact on the grid. Assuming the impedance models of individual inverters and local loads within a distribution grid are known, especially in the case of new grids under construction, harmonic interactions between the grid and a certain number of DG inverters can be preliminarily estimated.
Date of Publication: March 2011