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Fuzzy cognitive maps (FCMs), as an illustrative causative representation of modeling and manipulation of complex systems, can be used to model the dynamic behavior of the investigated systems. However, due to defects in expression and architecture, the traditional FCMs and most of their relevant extensions are not applicable to classification problems. To solve this problem, this paper presents an approach that directly extends the model by translating the reasoning mechanism of traditional FCMs to a set of fuzzy IF-THEN rules. Moreover, the proposed approach fully considers the contribution of the inputs to the activation of the fuzzy rules and quantifies the causalities using mutual subsethood, which works in conjunction with volume defuzziflcation in a gradient descent-learning framework. In this manner, our approach enhances the capability of the conventional FCMs to automatically identify membership functions and quantify causalities. Despite the increase in the number of tunable parameters, experimental results show that the proposed approach efficiently extends the application of the traditional FCMs into classification problems, while keeping the ability for prediction and approximation.