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In this study, a robust path tracking control scheme is constructed for a nonholonomic mobile robot via a dynamic Petri recurrent-fuzzy-neural-network (DPRFNN). In the DPRFNN, the concept of a Petri net (PN) and the recurrent frame of internal feedback loops are incorporated into a traditional fuzzy neural network (FNN) to alleviate the computation burden of parameter learning and to enhance the dynamic mapping of network ability. This five-layer DPRFNN is utilized for the major role in the proposed control scheme, and the corresponding adaptation laws of network parameters are established in the sense of projection algorithm and Lyapunov stability theorem to ensure the network convergence as well as stable control performance without the requirement of detailed system information and the compensation of auxiliary controllers. In addition, the effectiveness of the proposed robust DPRFNN control scheme is verified by numerical simulations of a differential-driving mobile robot under different moving paths and the occurrence of uncertainties, and its superiority is indicated in comparison with a stabilizing control system.