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The demagnetizing field in a micromagnetic simulation is studied under periodic boundary conditions. To evaluate the influence of the periodic structure, macroscopic demagnetizing factors are defined. A large demagnetizing field yields a linear magnetization where the susceptibility is given by the inverse of the macroscopic demagnetizing factor. The shape anisotropy induces rectangular hysteresis loops for which the coercive force is evaluated by the macroscopic demagnetizing factors.