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Advances in microelectronics performance and density continue to be fueled by the engine of Moore's law. Although lately this engine appears to be running out of steam, recent developments in advanced technologies have brought about a number of challenges and opportunities for their use in radiation environments. For example, while many advanced CMOS technologies have generally shown improving total dose tolerance, single-event effects continue to be a serious concern for highly scaled technologies. In this paper, we examine the impact of recent developments and the challenges they present to the radiation effects community. Topics covered include the impact of technology scaling on radiation response and technology challenges for both total dose and single-event effects. We include challenges for hardening and mitigation techniques at the nanometer scale. Recent developments leading to hardness assurance challenges are covered. Finally, we discuss future radiation effects challenges as the electronics industry looks beyond Moore's law to alternatives to traditional CMOS technologies.