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This paper presents a methodology for modeling and analyzing the load demand in a distribution system due to electric vehicle (EV) battery charging. Following a brief introduction to the common types of EV batteries and their charging characteristics, an analytical solution for predicting the EV charging load is developed. The method is stochastically formulated so as to account for the stochastic nature of the start time of individual battery charging and the initial battery state-of-charge. A comparative study is carried out by simulating four EV charging scenarios, i.e., uncontrolled domestic charging, uncontrolled off-peak domestic charging, “smart” domestic charging and uncontrolled public charging-commuters capable of recharging at the workplace. The proposed four EVs charging scenarios take into account the expected future changes to the electricity tariffs in the electricity market place and appropriate regulation of EVs battery charging loads. A typical U.K. distribution system is adopted as an example. The time-series data of EV charging loads is taken from two commercially available EV batteries: lead-acid and lithium-ion. Results show that a 10% market penetration of EVs in the studied system would result in an increase in daily peak demand by up to 17.9%, while a 20% level of EV penetration would lead to a 35.8% increase in peak load, for the scenario of uncontrolled domestic charging-the “worst-case” scenario.
Date of Publication: May 2011