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This paper presents methods for simulating room acoustics using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) technique, focusing on boundary and medium modeling. A family of nonstaggered 3-D compact explicit FDTD schemes is analyzed in terms of stability, accuracy, and computational efficiency, and the most accurate and isotropic schemes based on a rectilinear grid are identified. A frequency-dependent boundary model that is consistent with locally reacting surface theory is also presented, in which the wall impedance is represented with a digital filter. For boundaries, accuracy in numerical reflection is analyzed and a stability proof is provided. The results indicate that the proposed 3-D interpolated wideband and isotropic schemes outperform directly related techniques based on Yee's staggered grid and standard digital waveguide mesh, and that the boundary formulations generally have properties that are similar to that of the basic scheme used.