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Three-dimensional (3D) integration using through-silicon vias (TSVs) and low-volume lead-free solder interconnects allows the formation of high signal bandwidth, fine pitch, and short-distance interconnections in stacked dies. There are several approaches for 3D chip stacking including chip to chip, chip to wafer, and wafer to wafer. Chip-to-chip integration and chip-to-wafer integration offer the ability to stack known good dies, which can lead to higher yields without integrated redundancy. In the future, with structure and process optimization, wafer-to-wafer integration may provide an ultimate solution for the highest manufacturing throughput assuming a high yield and minimal loss of good dies and wafers. In the near term, chip-to-chip and chip-to-wafer integration may offer high yield, high flexibility, and high performance with added time-to-market advantages. In this work, results are reported for 3D integration after using a chip-to-wafer assembly process using 3D chip-stacking technology and fine-pitch interconnects with lead-free solder. Stacks of up to six dies were assembled and characterized using lead-free solder interconnections that were less than 6 µm in height. The average resistance of the TSV including the lead-free solder interconnect was as low as 21 mΩ.
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