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3D chip-stacking technology with through-silicon vias and low-volume lead-free interconnections

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13 Author(s)
Sakuma, K. ; IBM Research Division, IBM Tokyo Research Laboratory, 1623-14 Shimo-tsuruma, Yamato-shi, Kanagawa-ken 242-8502, Japan ; Andry, P.S. ; Tsang, C.K. ; Wright, S.L.
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Three-dimensional (3D) integration using through-silicon vias (TSVs) and low-volume lead-free solder interconnects allows the formation of high signal bandwidth, fine pitch, and short-distance interconnections in stacked dies. There are several approaches for 3D chip stacking including chip to chip, chip to wafer, and wafer to wafer. Chip-to-chip integration and chip-to-wafer integration offer the ability to stack known good dies, which can lead to higher yields without integrated redundancy. In the future, with structure and process optimization, wafer-to-wafer integration may provide an ultimate solution for the highest manufacturing throughput assuming a high yield and minimal loss of good dies and wafers. In the near term, chip-to-chip and chip-to-wafer integration may offer high yield, high flexibility, and high performance with added time-to-market advantages. In this work, results are reported for 3D integration after using a chip-to-wafer assembly process using 3D chip-stacking technology and fine-pitch interconnects with lead-free solder. Stacks of up to six dies were assembled and characterized using lead-free solder interconnections that were less than 6 µm in height. The average resistance of the TSV including the lead-free solder interconnect was as low as 21 mΩ.

Note: The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Incorporated is distributing this Article with permission of the International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) who is the exclusive owner. The recipient of this Article may not assign, sublicense, lease, rent or otherwise transfer, reproduce, prepare derivative works, publicly display or perform, or distribute the Article.  

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IBM Journal of Research and Development  (Volume:52 ,  Issue: 6 )