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Things that talk: Using sound for device-to-device and device-to-human communication

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2 Author(s)
Gerasimov, V. ; MIT Media Laboratory, 20 Ames Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139-4307, USA ; Bender, W.

Nonlexical sound is explored as both a device-to-device and device-to-human communication medium. Considerations for device-to-device communication include robustness in various environments, potential interference, frequency limitations of conventional and piezoelectric devices, computational complexity, and strategies for ultrasonic and human-audible frequencies. Algorithms include modem protocols, information-hiding techniques, impulse coding, and dual-tone modulation. Considerations for device-to-human communication include the use of sounds that are unobtrusive in public settings and sounds that enable attention to be divided between the performance of complex tasks and real-time feedback.

Note: The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Incorporated is distributing this Article with permission of the International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) who is the exclusive owner. The recipient of this Article may not assign, sublicense, lease, rent or otherwise transfer, reproduce, prepare derivative works, publicly display or perform, or distribute the Article.  

Published in:

IBM Systems Journal  (Volume:39 ,  Issue: 3.4 )