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The detection and monitoring of gases in exhaled human breath up to date has been limited by the lack of appropriate materials and technologies which could rapidly and selectively identify the presence and monitor the concentration of trace levels of specific analytes-biomarkers. We present a metal oxide-based nanosensor that is highly specific to ammonia gas in breath-simulating environments at low part-per-billion concentrations. The design of a handheld breath analyzer for gas detection in exhaled human breath is described. Semiconducting ceramics are presented as suitable sensor materials for easy and affordable noninvasive diagnostics.