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A 1-D variational (1DVAR) retrieval technique has been developed for obtaining temperature and humidity profiles from observations of the Ground-Based Scanning Radiometer (GSR) operating at millimeter-wavelengths. The GSR was deployed in two Arctic experiments held at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program in Barrow, Alaska. Temperature and humidity profiles retrieved with the 1DVAR technique are compared with simultaneous radiosonde observations (RAOBs) during the Radiative Heating in Underexplored Bands Campaign (February-March 2007). Examples and statistical results are presented and discussed to demonstrate the achieved retrieval accuracy and vertical resolution. The 1DVAR retrievals based on GSR observations improve the NWP background up to 5 km, particularly in the lower 3 km. The present implementation achieved an root-mean-square (rms) error with respect to RAOB within 1.5 K for temperature and 0.10 g/kg for humidity profiles of up to 5 km in height, with 2.9 and 2.0 degrees of freedom for signal, respectively. Using the interlevel covariance definition of the vertical resolution, the 1DVAR retrievals showed a < 1-km vertical resolution of up to 5 km for both temperature and humidity profiles. The integrated water vapor obtained from the retrieved humidity profiles showed an rms accuracy within 0.10 kg/m2 , with small bias (< 0.01 kg/m2) and excellent correlation (0.96).