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In point-based rigid-body registration, target registration error (TRE) is an important measure of the accuracy of the performed registration. The registration's accuracy depends on the fiducial localization error (FLE) which, in turn, is due to the measurement errors in the points (fiducials) used to perform the registration. FLE may have different characteristics and distributions at each point of the registering data sets, and along each orthogonal axis. Previously, the distribution of TRE was estimated based on the assumption that FLE has an independent, identical, and isotropic or anisotropic distribution for each point in the registering data sets. In this article, we present a general solution based on the maximum likelihood (ML) algorithm that estimates the distribution of TRE for the cases where FLE has an independent, identical or inhomogeneous, isotropic or anisotropic, distribution at each point in the registering data sets, and when an algorithm is available that is capable of calculating the optimum registration to first order. Mathematically, we show that the proposed algorithm simplifies to the one proposed by Fitzpatrick and West when FLE has an independent, identical, and isotropic distribution in the registering data sets. Furthermore, we use numerical simulations to show that the proposed algorithm accurately estimates the distribution of TRE when FLE has an independent, inhomogeneous, and anisotropic distribution in the registering data sets.
Date of Publication: June 2009