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A Single-Photon Avalanche Diode Array for Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy

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3 Author(s)
Schwartz, D.E. ; Dept. of Electr. Eng., Columbia Univ., New York, NY ; Charbon, E. ; Shepard, Kenneth L.

We describe the design, characterization, and demonstration of a fully integrated single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) imager for use in time-resolved fluorescence imaging. The imager consists of a 64-by-64 array of active SPAD pixels and an on-chip time-to-digital converter (TDC) based on a delay-locked loop (DLL) and calibrated interpolators. The imager can perform both standard time-correlated single-photon counting (TCSPC) and an alternative gated-window detection useful for avoiding pulse pile-up when measuring bright signal levels. To illustrate the use of the imager, we present measurements of the decay lifetimes of fluorescent dyes of several types with a timing resolution of 350 ps.

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Solid-State Circuits, IEEE Journal of  (Volume:43 ,  Issue: 11 )